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第20讲:定语从句之考点精讲

【考点扫描】
中考对定语从句的考查主要集中在以下几个方面:
1.定语从句的功用和结构
2.关系代词和关系副词的功用
3.各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法
考查的主要形式是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。阅读理解和书面表达肯定也要用到定语从句。
【名师精讲】
一. 定语从句的功用和结构
    在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定从句修饰的词叫做先行词。定语从句必须放在先行词之后。引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词和关系副词。例如:
This is the present that he gave me for my birthday.
Do you know everybody who came to the party?
I still remember the night when I first came to the village?
This is the place where Chairman Mao once lived.
二. 关系代词和关系副词的功用
    关系代词和关系副词用来引导定于从句,在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作用,使二者联系起来。关系代词和关系副词又在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系待客做主语,宾语,定语,关系副词可作状语。
1. 作主语:关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数须和先行词一致。例如:
I don’t like people who talk much but do little.
The cars which are produced in Hubei Province sell very well.
2. 作宾语:
She is the person that I met at the school gate yesterday.
The book that my grandmother gave me is called “The Great Escape”.
3. 作定语
关系代词whose在定语从句中作定语用。例如:
What’s the name of the young man whose sister is a doctor?
The girl whose father is a teacher studies very hard.
4. 作状语
I’ll never forget the day when I first came to Beijing.
This is the house where I was born.
三. 各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法
1. who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。例如:
The person who broke the window must pay for it.
The boy who is wearing the black jacket is very clever.
2. whom指人,在定语从句中作宾语。例如:
Do you know the young man (whom) we met at the gate?
Mr Lee (whom) you want to see has come.
3. whose 指人,在定语从句中作定语。例如:
The girl whose mother is ill is staying at home today.
I know the boy whose father is a professor.
4. which指物,在定语从中作主语或宾语。例如:
A dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words.
Here is the book (which) the teacher mentioned yesterday.
5. that多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。例如:
I’ve read the newspaper that(which) carries the important news.
Who is the person that is reading the newspaper over there?
6. when 指时间,在定语从句中作状语。例如:
     I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm.
     He arrived in Beijing on the day when I left.
7. where 指地点,在定语从句中作状语。例如:
     This is the house where we lived last year.
     The factory where his father works is in the east of the city.
四. 关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放于先行词与定语从句之间,有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 与先行词紧挨着书写,而将介词置于定语从句的后面,如:
That was the room in which we had lived for ten years. = That was the room 
which we had lived in for ten years.
五. 具体使用时还要注意下列问题:
1. 只能使用that,不用which 的情况:
(1) 先行词是all, few, little, nothing, everything, anything 等不定代词时。例如:
        All that he said is true. 
(2) 先行词被only, no, any, all,等词修饰时。例如:
        He is the only foreigner that has been to that place. 
(3) 先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰的词。例如:
He was the second (person) that told me the secret.
(4) 先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰的词。
This is the best book (that) I have read this year.
(5) 先行词既包括人又包括物时。例如:
He talked about the people and the things he remembered.
2. 只能用which,不用that 的情况:
(1) 在非限制性定语从中。例如:
       The meeting was put off, which was exactly what we wanted.
(2) 定语从句由介词+关系代词引导,先行词是物时。例如:
       The thing about which he is talking is of great importance.
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