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第17讲:直接和间接引语之难点解析

1.“Speak English more often in and out of class,” our English teacher said to us.
Our English teacher suggested us to speak English more often in and out of class. (误)
Our English teacher told /asked us to speak English more often in and out of class. (正)
Our English teacher suggested that we(should)speak English more often in and out of class. (正)
简析:直接引语是祈使句,变为间接引语时,要将祈使句的动词原形变为带to的不定式,并在不定式的前面根据语气需要使用ask,tell,order等动词,其句型是:ask/tell/order someone to do sth.,但是suggest不能接不定式作宾补,只能接-ing形式或从句(从句用虚拟语气)作宾语。
2.“Don’t play football on the street,little boys,” the policeman said.
The policeman told the little boys did not play football on the street. (误)
The policeman told the little boys not to play football on the street. (正)
简析:如果直接引语是祈使句的否定式,变为间接引语时,要将其改为不定式的否定形式作宾补,不定式的否定形式是在不定式前面加not,而不是加do not,does not,did not等。
3.“Would you please do me the favor to carry the box upstairs?” the young woman said to me.
The young woman ordered me to carry the box upstairs for her. (误)
The young woman asked me to carry the box upstairs for her.(正)
简析:直接引语是一些表示请求、建议的疑问句,变为间接引语时, 也变为不定式作宾语补足语。需要注意的是应根据原句的语气选用恰当的动词。因为此处原来的疑问句用的是很客气的语气,改写后不宜用order。
4.“You clean the classroom after class today,Tom,” said the monitor.
The monitor said that Tom cleaned the classroom after class that day.(误)
The monitor told Tom to clean the classroom after class that day. (正)
简析:一般而言,祈使句是以动词原形开头的,但是如果说话人有意强调动作执行者,也可以在句首加上主语。我们在将其变为间接引语时不能将带有主语的祈使句与陈述句混淆起来。
5.“It’s a fine day. Let’s go to the country for a picnic,” Peter said to me.
Peter told me that it was a fine day and let us go to the country for a picnic. (误)
Peter said that it was a fine day and asked me to go to the country for a picnic with him. (正)
简析:当直接引语中有多种句子形式如陈述句、祈使句、疑问句等时,我们就要用不同的方式将各种句子进行转述。因为原句中直接引语前面部分是陈述句,故变为由that引导的宾语从句,后面部分是祈使句所以变为不定式作宾补。
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